*Constructing a Pentatonic PanPipe*

**1. Gather your supplies**

3 feet of PVC ½ inch piping (diameter is not essential, but this is easily found, standard width PVC tubing)

- 5 PVC ½ inch end caps
- Saw, Dremel cutting tool, etc.
- PVC cement
- Ruler/measuring tape

Optional:

- Spray paint/brush
- Sandpaper
- Chop sticks/dowels
- Twine or ribbon

**2. Measure 5 lengths of PVC tubing as follows:**

Adapted from and thanks to: http://www.philtulga.com/Panpipes.html

*Cut the pieces a little long so you can tune them later as needed.*

**3. Attach the end caps using the cement.**

- Using a tuner, trim the tubes until the tone is at the right pitch.
- If planning to paint when finished, now is the time to lightly sand so the paint will adhere.
- Use the PVC cement to glue the pipes together, lining up the open ends of the pipes.
- Use your cutting tool to trim the PVC end caps so the pipes sit flush against one another.

**4. Optional**

- Spray paint the pipes, and embellish with the chopsticks and twine/ribbon to create a set of pipes that resemble traditional bamboo panpipes.

*Playing the PanPipes*

** **Blow across the top of the pipes as you would a pop bottle. This 5 note set has a pentatonic scale, but by using a standard set of calculations, you can create a set that plays a complete chromatic scale and in multiple octaves.

*The Math*

*Adapted from and thanks to: http://www.instructables.com/id/Homemade-well-tuned-pan-flute/*

* *A pan flute is a group of tubes with a closed end. Each tube has a different length but all share the same diameter. The length of the tube determines the pitch: longer tubes produce lower notes, shorter tubes produce higher notes. The inner diameter of the tube influences the air speed needed to make the sound audible: a smaller diameter requires a faster, more focused air stream, while a larger diameter requires a slower, larger air stream.

Using the formula above:

– *L* is the length of the tube

– *v* is the speed of sound

– *f* is the frequency

Using the first formula shown in the previous step the list of lengths for a chromatic 13 note set of panpipes in cm:

31.69; 29.91; 28.23; 26.65; 25.15; 23.74; 22.41; 21.15; 19.96;18.84; 17.78; 16.79; 15.84.